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An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Third Edition. In this third edition of his popular undergraduate-level textbook,. Desmond Nicholl recognises that a sound. Cambridge Core - Genetics - An Introduction to Genetic Engineering - by Access. PDF; Export citation Chapter 11 - Genetic engineering and biotechnology. Cambridge Core - Biotechnology - An Introduction to Genetic Engineering - by Desmond S. T. PDF; Export citation Part I - The basis of genetic engineering.

An Introduction To Genetic Engineering Pdf

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Chapter 5 Genetic Engineering of Plants for Resistance to Viruses viruses, and introducing genetically modified organisms into the environment, and. GENETIC ENGINEERING FACT SHEET 1. Introduction to Genetic. Modification. PEGGY G. LEMAUX, Cooperative Extension Specialist, Department of Plant and . Lesson: Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications. Contributed by: . Flow Chart (docx) · Genetic Engineering Flow Chart Answer Key (pdf).

The correction of genetic errors associated with disease in animals suggests that gene editing has potential applications in gene therapy for humans.

Historical developments

Through recombinant DNA techniques, bacteria have been created that are capable of synthesizing human insulin , human growth hormone , alpha interferon , a hepatitis B vaccine , and other medically useful substances.

Plants may be genetically adjusted to enable them to fix nitrogen, and genetic diseases can possibly be corrected by replacing dysfunctional genes with normally functioning genes.

Nevertheless, special concern has been focused on such achievements for fear that they might result in the introduction of unfavourable and possibly dangerous traits into microorganisms that were previously free of them—e.

Likewise, the application of gene editing in humans has raised ethical concerns, particularly regarding its potential use to alter traits such as intelligence and beauty.

Department of Agriculture approved the sale of the first living genetically altered organism—a virus , used as a pseudorabies vaccine, from which a single gene had been cut. Since then several hundred patents have been awarded for genetically altered bacteria and plants.

Patents on genetically engineered and genetically modified organisms, particularly crops and other foods, however, were a contentious issue, and they remained so into the first part of the 21st century.

Food and Drug Administration http: By definition, genetic engineering is the direct altering of an organism's genome. This is achieved through manipulation of the DNA. Doing this is possible because DNA is like a universal language; all DNA for all organisms is made up of the same nucleotide building blocks.

Thus, it is possible for genes from one organism to be read by another organism. In the cookbook analogy, this equates to taking a recipe from one organism's cookbook and putting into another cookbook.

Now imagine that all cookbooks are written in the same language; thus, any recipe can be inserted and used in any other cookbook. The new instructions may supplement the old instructions such that an extra trait is exhibited, or they may completely replace the old instructions such that a trait is changed.

The process for genetic engineering begins the same for any organism being modified see Figure 3 for an example of this procedure. When modifying bacteria, the most common method for this final step is to add the isolated gene to a plasmid , a circular piece of DNA used by bacteria. This is done by "cutting" the plasmid with the same restriction enzyme that was used to remove the gene from the original DNA.

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The new gene can now be inserted into this opening in the plasmid and the DNA can be bonded back together using another enzyme called ligase. This process, shown in Figure 4, creates a recombinant plasmid.

In this case, the recombinant plasmid is also referred to as a bacterial artificial chromosome BAC. Figure 4. Building a recombinant plasmid to modify bacteria. Once the recombinant DNA has been built, it can be passed to the organism to be modified. If modifying bacteria, this process is quite simple.

The plasmid can be easily inserted into the bacteria where the bacteria treat it as their own DNA. For plant modification, certain bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens may be used because these bacteria permit their plasmids to be passed to the plant's DNA. The number of applications for genetic engineering are increasing as more and more is learned about the genomes of different organisms.

A few interesting or notable application areas are described below. How many of today's crops are genetically modified? As of , in the U. The bacteria gene used contains a recipe for a protein that is toxic when consumed by insects, but safe when consumed by humans. The creation of genetically modified crops provides many incentives for farmers and businesses.

When farmers are able to plant a crop that has a higher yield per acre, they can significantly increase production, and thus sales, with minimal cost. Disease, pest and other resistances reduce crop loss, which also helps to increase profits. Besides farmers, other benefactors from modified crops include seed, agrochemical and agriculture equipment companies as well as distributors and universities that are involved in GMO research.

Due to their simple structures, the most commonly modified organisms are bacteria.

The first modified bacteria were created in Bacteria can be modified to produce desirable proteins that can be harvested and used. One example is insulin or spider silk, which is difficult to gather naturally.

Other modifications to bacteria include making changes to the cellular respiration process to alter the byproducts; typically CO 2 is produced, however engineers have made modifications so that hydrocarbon byproducts such as diesel and polyethylene a fuel and a plastic are produced.

The minute lesson time leaves a fair amount of time for discussion, but since class participation will vary, you may want to extend the lesson another minutes to allow for a thorough discussion of the ethical implications of genetic engineering. This makes a good student research and debate topic, too. The main reason genetically modified organisms are not more widely used is due to ethical concerns. Nearly 50 countries around the world, including Australia, Japan and all of the countries in the European Union, have enacted significant restrictions or full bans on the production and sale of genetically modified organism food products, and 64 countries have GMO labeling requirements.

This generally arises in the case of GMO foods. Are the foods safe for human consumption? Is GMO feed healthy for animals? Many opponents of GMO foods say not enough independent testing is done before the food is approved for sale to consumers.

In general, research has shown that GMO foods are safe for humans. Another safety consideration is the health of farmers and their families, animals and communities who are put at risk with exposure to chemicals used in tandem with GMO seeds.

Environmental Impact: Consider that genetic engineers have the ability to create trees that grow faster than their unmodified counterparts. This seems like a great deal for the lumber industry, but might some unintended consequences result?

Being outdoors and grown in large quantities, the modified trees may cross-pollinate with unmodified trees to form hybrids outside of designated growing areas.

This in return could create trees that could disrupt the ecosystem. For example, they could overpopulate the area or grow so large that they smother other plant life. This same scenario has unintended and undesirable consequences when the pollen from GMO crops drifts into non-GMO fields. Should humans be genetically engineered? Doing so could have medical applications that reduce or prevent genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome. However, the bigger question is where should engineering humans stop?

Should parents be allowed to decide their children's eye colors, heights or even genders before birth? Watch this activity on YouTube. What part of an organism contains all of the information needed for it to function? DNA When genes are expressed, what is the final product made? Proteins Does anyone know why bacteria are modified more than other organisms?

With their very simple structures and ability to use plasmids, bacteria are much easier and less costly to modify. What are some ethical and moral concerns that genetic engineers must consider? Does anyone think it is a good idea to genetically modify people?

An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (2nd edn)

Some researchers say this could be an approach to cure diseases such as Down's syndrome and other genetic defects. Superficial changes could also be made, such as determining a person's height, eye color or gender, by making changes to embryos in the mothers' wombs. But just because something can be done, does that make it a good idea? This is a good topic for an extended discussion. Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that contains an organism's complete genetic information.

An Introduction To Genetic Engineering, 3rd Edition

The molecular unit of an organism that contains information for a specific trait specific DNA sequence. An entire set of genes for an organism. Acronym for genetically modified organism. The building block of DNA. The circular DNA structure used by bacteria.

Large biomolecules used by an organism for a number of purposes; in this context, to express a desired trait. DNA to which a section has been removed and replaced recombined with a new sequence.

An enzyme that "cuts" DNA when specific base pair sequences are present. A distinguishing characteristic. Discussion Questions: Initiate a brief discussion to gauge whether students have heard of or know anything about genetics. Ask questions such as:. Flow Chart: Additional safety studies may be conducted, focusing on areas of greatest potential concern.

Comparing a GE plant or animal with its conventional counterpart alone is not sufficient for assessing the likelihood of unintended effects of genetic engineering and conventional breeding practices. It also is necessary to determine the frequency and nature of the associated unintended effects and to evaluate the methods that are potentially useful in assessing the safety of food products that result from use of these methods.

The Scope of This Report While using biotechnology or conventional breeding techniques to enhance specific characteristics or increase the yield of food introduces the possibility of unintended deleterious effects on both human health and the environment, the focus of this report is health—including an examination of whether the likelihood of unintended adverse health effects from compositional changes is greater for foods that are genetically engineered than for those genetically modified using other methods such as conventionally bred plants.

Furthermore, this report evaluates currently used and newly developed methods for detecting unintended changes in genetically modified foods and also assesses and recommends techniques for predicting their potential health effects.

However, it does not directly evaluate the potential health effects of specific engineered genes or proteins, nor does it assess the regulation of GE food. Department of Agriculture, the U. Environmental Protection Agency—asked the National Academies to convene a committee that would outline science-based approaches to assess or predict the unintended health effects of GE foods to aid in evaluating these products before they are sold to the public.

The committee was charged with identifying appropriate scientific questions and methods for determining unintended changes in the levels of nutrients, toxins, toxicants, allergens, or other compounds in food from GEOs and outlining methods to assess the potential short- and long-term human health consequences of such changes.

The agencies also asked the committee to compare GE food with food derived from other genetic modification methods, such as crossbreeding, with respect to the frequency of compositional changes and the frequency and severity of the effects of these changes on consumer health. Finally, the committee was asked to discuss whether certain safety issues are specific to GE food and, if so, to recommend approaches for addressing these issues.In the latter part of the 20th century, however, the term came to refer more specifically to methods of recombinant DNA technology or gene cloning , in which DNA molecules from two or more sources are combined either within cells or in vitro and are then inserted into host organisms in which they are able to propagate.

One of the earliest uses of genetic engineering was to mass-produce human insulin in bacteria. The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a specific endogenous gene.

Backcross breeding is the final step in the genetic engineering process, where the transgenic crop is crossed with a variety that possesses important agronomic traits, and selected in order to obtain high quality plants that express the inserted gene in a desired manner. A distinguishing characteristic. When farmers are able to plant a crop that has a higher yield per acre, they can significantly increase production, and thus sales, with minimal cost.

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