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Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data seventh edition The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals Donald W Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Time-saver standards for architectural design data / edited by Donald Watson, Michael J. Crosbie, John. TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR INTERIOR DESIGN AND SPACE PLANNING. Karl Ryan Candinato. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. The Times-Saver Standards is published with the understanding that 2 of 3 McGraw-Hill is not engaged in providing architectural, engineering design 11/1/

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Item 40 - 60 Time Saver Standards Interior Design - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Time Saver Standards Interior Design. Time-Saver Standards for. Interior Design and. Space Planning. Other McGraw- Hill Books of Interest. Binder • Corporate Facility Planning Breyer • Design of. Time Saver Standards - Building Types - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. An architecture manual.

Stephen S. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. One Cyclotron Road. Berkeley, CA Shaeffer, P. Martin Luther King Blvd. Peter R. Smith, Ph. Karl Stum. Russ Sullivan, P. Steven V. Timothy T. Francis Ventre, Ph. Additional contributors and reviewers The special contributions and reviews of the following individuals are gratefuly acknowledged: William A. Rita M. Daniel L. Richard Solomon, P. Conceived in the mids as a compilation of reference articles, Time-Saver Standards features first appeared in American Architect, which subsequently merged with and continued the series in Architectural Record.

Since , Architectural Record has been presenting each month, articles, graphs, tables and charts, with a minimum of verbiage In the Fifth edition , perhaps in relief of many months of editing, John Hancock Calendar offered that, Now and again we hear it said that building has not changed significantly since the age of the pyramids.

Anyone who subscribes to this view should be given the task of trying to keep Time-Saver Standards up to date. The result is a constant increase in the amount of technical data needed by building designers.

In his Preface to Sixth edition , John Hancock Callender used the occasion to comment upon the need to adopt metrication in the U. The present edition carries metric equivalents throughout the text wherever practical. The Appendix to the present Volume carries the most recent update of the ASTM standard on metrication, along with an introduction written for architects. In preparing this the Seventh edition, the first revision in more than a dozen years, the editors were challenged in many respects.

This is evident in the fact that the volume has been almost entirely rewritten, with new articles by over eighty authors. New materiasl and construction methods have replaced standard practices of even a dozen years ago. There is since then new information and recommended practices in architecture and new ways of communicating information throughout the architectural and building professions.

Some of the topics in the present volume were not even identified much less considered as critical issues when the last edition of this volume was published. At the same time, the design fundamentals and selection guidelines by which to locate and evaluate such data become all the more critical. All of the articles in the present edition are written to assist the architect in the general principles of understanding, selecting and evaluating the professional information and knowledge needed for practice.

Each article lists key references within each topic. How one understands and thinks about architecture and its process of construction is part of the creative design process. The editors and authors of Time-Saver Standards hope to inform, and also to inspire, the reader in pursuit of that endeavor. Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data xiii Preface Comments and submissions are welcomed Because the knowledge base of architecture is changing constantly as building practices change in response to new materials, processes and project types, the succeeding volumes of Time-Saver Standards Series will build upon both electronic access and a regular revision print schedule.

For this reason, reader responses to the contents of the present Volume and proposals for the Eighth Edition are solicited in the note below and the Reader Response Form found at the end of this Volume.

Any and all corrections, comments, critiques and suggestions regarding the contents and topics covered in this book are invited and will be gratefully received and acknowledged.

A Reader Response Form is appended at the end of this volume, for your evaluation and comment. Submissions of manuscripts or proposals for articles are invited on any topics related to the contents of Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, Eighth edition, now in preparation.

Two print copies of proposed manuscripts and illustrations should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief. Receipt of manuscripts will be acknowledged and, for those selected for consideration, author guidelines will be issued for final submission format.

He served as a U. Peace Corps Architect in Tunisia, North Africa from , becoming involved at the time in the research in indigenous architecture and its application to bioclimatic design. He received his doctorate in architecture from Catholic University. He has previously served as technical editor for Architecture and Progressive Architecture, magazines and is contributing editor to Construction Specifier.

Crosbie has won several journalism awards. In memorium John Hancock Callender was responsible for the editorial direction of Time-Saver Standards from to The present edition carries the name of John Hancock Callender in recognition of his lifelong editorial contributions to the knowledge and practice of architecture.

He was researcher in low-cost housing materials at John B. Pierce Foundation from to and served with the Army Engineers Professional and technical reference books for architecture are not easily composed. Information must be useful, authoritative and understandable, with a balance of visual representation and explanation for its integration in design.

In the following selections, the jury lauds the accomplishments of the authors, editors and publishers of books that are technically relevant and also inspirational in promoting technical and professional excellence in architecture. Allen, Edward and Joseph Iano. Design data organized for preliminary design, especially helpful for students of architecture and construction.

American Institute of Architects. David Haviland, Hon.

AIA, Editor. A comprehensive summary of information essential for professional practice. The student edition is in one volume and is especially helpful for both student and professional reference. Architectural Graphic Standards. A digest of design data and details organized for easy reference, on all topics related to architecture and construction, with emphasis on graphic and visual information.

An essential reference for designers of mechanical systems for buildings, the standard professional reference for the HVAC and building design community. Berger, Horst. Basel-Boston-Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag. Brantley, L. Reed and Ruth T. New York: McGraw-Hill. An authoritative review of building materials, explained in terms of their chemical and physical properties and the environmental implications of their use in buildings.

Canadian Wood Council. Wood Reference Book. Ottawa: Canadian Wood Council. An excellent compilation of data for wood products, manufacturing processes, wood structural systems, connections and finishes, with excellent details and applications. Elliott, Cecil D. An insightful and well documented history of the development of architectural and building technologies. Givoni, Baruch.

Man, Climate and Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. A classic work in the experimental tradition of building science, summarizing extensive monitoring and principles of building bioclimatology. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

Rea, Editor-in-Chief. The authoritative and comprehensive reference for lighting applications in architecture. Millet, Marietta S. Light Revealing Architecture. Lighting for architecture, with an emphasis upon daylighting, presented as a design inspiration for architects as a way to understand technique, from historical and contemporary exemplars. Orton, Andrew. The Way We Build Now: form, scale and technique. An introduction to materials, structures, building physics and fire safety with excellent illustrations and examples.

Schodek, Daniel L. Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. This was due less to his fine craftsmanship than to his ability as a publicist. Georgian ERE the walls are pine-paneled. Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Chippendale served their changing taste and their fashionable whims. Boswell and Johnson.

Chippendale is the first personality in the history of furniture style. The mahogany table and chairs stand on an Oriental rug which repeats colors found in the needlepoint upholstery. In the panels at right are other pieces suitablo for a room of this type. His earlier work to his own designs. In his later years he was engaged in making furniture of classic. Alternatively the walls could be pale green. But brilliant against this pale background are the red damask curtains.

He was the first cabinetmaker to publish a book of furniture designs. The dominant tone is yellow. The consoles are also of pine. These came to a lush flowering in furniture hardware and gilt mirror frames. In the latter case it was usually gilt. For it must be remembered that many of the published designs were too complex for reproduction in the solid.

But the considerable use of inlay is not found until the late Georgian period. Georgian their workers' skill in carving. The introduction of mahogany about was a fundamental influence on furniture design.

From the France of Louis XV come the elaborate combinations of foliated C and S scrolls so typical of the rococo style of ornament. Serpentine fronts and sides broke down. Amboyna was occasionally used. From China come the rectangular leg and an infinite variety of fretted ornament. Pine was used for paneling and also for intricate carving as. Rosewood was another material in favor. Such designs were intended for inspiration only. Romance was sought in the past as well as the East.

Georgian even the solid rectangular forms of such traditionally four-square pieces as chests of drawers and tables. For typical profiles and decorative motifs see Fig. Characteristic of this period is the perfect coordination between architects. The best craftsmen would then be employed to carry out their designs.

Upholstery would be blue green except for the chairs by the fire in lemon yellow brocade and the sofa in gold satin. They did not consider their job at an end when they had designed the shell of a house. Some of the smaller pieces are inlaid with satinwood. GREev brocade curtains. Alternatively the walls might be pale pink with white moldings. Chippendale went for inspiration to Chinese and Gothic decoration.

At right are details of the architectural background at this period. The Classic detail was in carved stone or molded stucco. The motifs most characteristic of the later Georgian period see Fig. A damask in tones of coffee and gold is used for the other chairs. Chippendale and Hepplewhite.

The dark brown red of polished mahogany appears in the doors and furniture. The four Adam brothers. All these designers followed Chippen-.

All these colors are repeated in the rug. Nothing was too small or unimportant to deserve their attention. Every detail of furnishing. The great designers of the later Georgian period. George Hepplewhite. This was probably because Hepplewhite was more strongly influenced than Sheraton by contemporary French work.

All the designers eagerly exploited the possibilities of ve-. ALE P dale's lead by publishing design handbooks for the use of other less experienced and less imaginative craftsmen in this country and in the English provinces outside London.

Hepplewhite's work is usually characterized by his affection for curves. Curtains and chair seats would be cherry. Late Georgian T pale blur-green walls are relieved by grisaille paintin delicate Classic taste. Alternatively the color scheme might he hased on gold and white with blue green silk on the bed and yellow satin upholstery on the armchair for contrast. The sofa. Curtains are white silk. Sheraton's by a preference for straight lines. Green and beige enliven the carpet and painted ceiling design.

This later Georgian period has often been labeled the Age of Satinwood. Alternatively the wall paintings might be brighter and more varied in color. Of particular interest in Sheraton's work are his designs for ingenious folding and multi- purpose furniture such as folding beds.

Gold appears in the leather chair seats. Here is seen the changing fashion: Color and inlay become more popular than carving. These were designed for use in those bedrooms which were now doubling as parlors during the day.

In the panels to the right are a number of authentic pieces which might It. The rnaliogany lied is covered in white taffeta trimmed with apple green. Late Georgian neering and inlay with woods such as satinwood and amboyna. Hepplewhite at- tempted in his own words "to unite elegance with utility.

Some of these motifs the acanthus leaf. The basic proportions remain almost inviolate. But designers for more than half a century now. Ivory and brass inlay were often used to mark key plates. Angelica Kaufmann. Italian painters were brought in Pergolesi. Yet the solid tradition of English craftsmanship remained intact beneath all these changing fashions.

The symmetrical shapes of heavy proportion were taken over unchanged. For added color the fireside pieces might be upholstered in red satin. Those outlines were to be filled in later as Directoire merged into Empire. Most typically it took the form of gilded bas reliefs tacked to the smooth wood sur-. The Directoire. The walls are a pinkish gray. They were not. The center panel of this facade is of stone.

In panels at right are other pieces suitable for such a room. Green recurs in the upholstery of the armchair. The curtains are oyster white bound in gray and the rug predominantly white except for green and gold in the center.

Most pieces displayed large surfaces of highly polished wood. Imperial Rome was found to provide the dignity and impressiveness required in the prototype.

Ornamentation was almost always applied or inlaid. With the rise of Napoleon to absolute power. The general color scheme is rich. Beds developed into Classic ceremonial couches with scrolled ends. Most of the furniture would be painted white and gold. Other pieces suitable for a room of this type are shown in the panels at right.

Round tables were popular. Fabrics are gayly colored here: Where other woods were used. Above the doors art! Rosewood and ebony were also in favor. Directoire and Empire mahogany in this table is surrounded by chairs painted gold and white.

Alternatively the walls might be painted green with the cornice picked out in white and gold. French polished and often stained red. The walls are painted oyster while picked out with yellow moldings. Painted decoration was more commonly used on walls and ceilings than for furniture. Rich deep mahogany. An alternative color sclx-me would have dark beige walls.

From each of his campaigns he brought home some new decorative motif which he would turn over to his craftsmen for use in the net batch of furniture made to his order. The popular craze for all things Roman extended to include women's dresses and Lucullan banquets.

The top was commonly of porphyry or marble. At right are Other pieces and fabrics suitable for this type of room. They usually stood on a pedestal or tripod vase. The chairs would then be upholstered in red. In the early Directoire part of the period fabrics were quite delicately colored. From Italy came all the paraphernalia of Imperial Roman decoration.

These pieces have grace. The hampering restrictions on foreign trade led to the use of native fruitwoods instead of mahogany. Directoire and Empire The Egyptian campaign yielded an impressive collection of sphinxes.

Direcloire and Empire. Federal Duncan Phyfe. Residential Spaces 17th and18th Century French: Louis XIV. Tables 1 and 2. Many manufacturers also make and sell undersized pillows for cribs and youth beds as well as oversized pillows for the larger beds.

Be sure to take your clients to see and test the bed or mattress selected. After all. They have not yet been precisely determined by scientific methods. They vary both with the medium being used and with the type and quality of material being projected. The generally accepted values. Its size is always based on the size of the image to be viewed.

Thus an object 20 feet away and 6 feet long appears the same as a similar object 10 feet away and 3 feet long. The size of the viewing area is determined by three dimensions: Charles R. Macintosh YEAR: Figures 1 and 2 show two living rooms with typical furniture groupings no dining facilities.

Luxury units will necessarily need more space to accommodate more furnishings. During social activities. Circulation within the living room should be as direct as possible and yet not interfere with furniture placement. If such traffic is necessary. Dwelling units with three or more bedrooms should have separate dining rooms or clearly defined dining areas. Figure 3 shows a living room with one end used for dining.


Desirable conversation distance is also relatively small. Minimum Requirements A living room for a three. This area often is arranged in an "L" shape to achieve greater definition or privacy from the living activities. The minimum width of a living room should be ft. Planning Considerations Planning considerations should include adequate floor and wall space for furniture groupings.

With regard to the luxury end of the scale. There are. In any case.

This is extremely tight. When the living room is combined with the dining area. Figure 7 suggests that a space at least 12'9" x 13'3" is required to accommodate a grouping to seat 6 or 7 persons.

They are intended only as guidelines to illustrate minimum clearances for preliminary planning purposes. Figure 5 shows that a space 12'6" x 15'6" should be provided in order to accommodate seating for five around a in-diameter cocktail table.

It should be noted that these diagrams are not intended as models for complete living room layouts. When planning furniture arrangements. The piano. The design of the cabinet should take into account the actual electronic and other equipment to be housed and the clearances involved for operation. Power outlets should be coordinated and located so as to conceal unsightly wires and cables.

The extent of hearth extension. Since at least two trades are involved. Based on these drawings and inspection and measurement of existing conditions. It is important. This preference appears to stem from two needs 1 housekeeping advantages. Criterion The amount of space allocated to dining should be based on the number of persons to be served and the proper circulation space.

Commentary Size of the individual eating space on the table should be based upon a frontage of 24 in and an area of approximately 2 ft'. In addition. The following minimum clearances from the edge of the table should be provided: Desirable room for seating is a clear 42 in all around the dining table. In sizing the separate dining room. The location of the dining area in the kitchen is desirable for small houses and small apartments.

This area may be combined with the living room or kitchen. Where only one dining location is feasible. Space for accommodating the following sizes of tables and chairs in the dining area should be provided. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Appropriate space should be provided for the storage of china and large dining articles either in the dining area itself or in the adjacent kitchen.

There is space behind the chairs to edge past one side and one end. Minimum width for table and chairs. Since these data come from two sources.

Dining space with benches. Figures 8 and 9 show clearances and room sizes for various dining arrangements. Table space is 24" per person. Since these illustrations are intended only as guidelines for preliminary planning purposes. A hutch or buffet is typically about 18" deep. A 48" long table seats 4 and requires 26 ft'. A 42" wide table is common. With arm chairs at the ends. Length for primary bedroom: For secondary bedrooms.

Each bedroom shall have at least one closet that meets or exceeds the following standards 1. Children's bedrooms should be located away from the living room. For master bedrooms. The location of doors. Ample storage is essential.

Each bedroom requires at least one clothes closet. Lowest shelf shall not be over 6'2" above the floor of room 4. Clothes closets require a clear depth of two feet. Because of the room layout. At least 5'4" clear hanging space b. At least one-half the closet floor shall be level and not more than 12 inches above floor of adjacent room. Closets should be used between all bedrooms wherever possible. Some building codes permit rooms of even smaller sizes. Aside from sleeping.

These two factors complicate the planning of bedrooms. Figures 1 to 3 illustrate three configurations and the furniture clearances and room sizes required. Widths less than 9'0"will usually require extra area to accommodate comparable furniture. A master bedroom should accommodate at least one double bed 4'6" x 6'6" or two single beds 3'3" x 6'6" each.

The minimum room width shall be determined by the space required for the bed. It is essential to incorporate in the bedroom other functions such as relaxation.

The ideal plan would provide a bedroom for each child. Each child needs a space that is his or her own to develop a sense of responsibility and a respect for the property rights of others. An interrelationship exists between dressing. A larger proportion of the bedroom floor area is occupied by furniture than is the case with any other room.

One shelf and rod with at least 12 inches clear space above shelf 5. The least-used side of a single or twin bed can be placed against the wall except in bedrooms for the elderly. Department of Housing and Urban Development recommends the arrangement illustrated in this diagram. Net area: The U. The most likely occupants of this type of bedroom are adults. Toilet paper holder at water closet 3. Mirror and medicine cabinet or equivalent enclosed shelf space 6. Cm Soap dish at lavatory may be integral with lavatory 4.

Grab-bar and soap dish at bathtub 2. Each complete bathroom should be provided with the following: In all cases where shower head is installed. Linen storage should be accessible from the bathroom. The bathroom should be convenient to the bedroom zone. Towel bar 5. Until that is developed.

Given the great variability in body sizes to be accommodated within a single family. A lavatory height above the floor of 37 to 43 in. It should be noted. Figure 2 explores. The design of the bathroom is perhaps one of those areas where the interface between the physically disabled and the interior space is the most critical. There is a proliferation of state and local legislation in this regard. The designer should become familiar with those codes and other requirements in her or his area prior to initiation of design and.

More space should be allocated when possible. Residential Spaces Anthropometric Data The height of a kitchen workcounter. CM All must be responsive to human dimension and body size if the quality of interface between the user and the components of the interior space are to be adequate.

Figure 1 provides some general anthropometric data for establishing basic heights of cabinetry and appliances above the floor Figures 2 and 3 show in more detail the interface of the human body and the kitchen environment.

Certain cooking activities. In overhead cabinets the upper shelves are usually inaccessible to the smaller person. But such a height does not necessarily accommodate the body dimension of all users for all tasks. In establishing clearances between counters. Refrigerator doors. Standard kitchen counter heights manufactured are all about 36 in. Such a system could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size.

The logical answer is the development of kitchen cabinet systems capable of total adjustability to accommodate the human dimension of the individual user. In this regard. The in. Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 in. The range workzone clearance. An extremely important. The anthropometric basis for the clearances are amplified in Fig. When not broken. The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends.

The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical Ushaped scheme. The typical L-shaped kitchen allows for the location of a small breakfast area in the opposite corner. A'riargle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout.

Minimum counter frontage.. For combined work centers.

Wall cabinet for staple storage. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Range space with base and wall cabinet at one side for serving and storage of utensils and staples. Work centers for the following equipment. Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should be provided between base cabinets or appliances opposite each other This same minimum clearance applies when a wall. Sink and base cabinet with counter space on each side forcleanup. Refrigerator space with counter space at latch side of the refrigerator door.

Wall cabinets for storage f dinnerware. Mixing counter and base cabinet for electrical appliances and utensil storage. Recommended minimum edge distance Equipment should be placed to allow for efficient operating room between it and any adjacent corner cabinet. Serving circulation to the dining area should be without any cross traffic.

At least 9 in from the edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the side of the refrigerator is recommended. Height of shelving and counter tops 1. Traffic Traffic in the kitchen should be limited to kitchen work only.

Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning

Height of counter tops should be 36 in. Minimum clearance height between sink and wall cabinet 24 in. Dimension F: Minimum clearance should be not less than 3 in. Dimension B: Cabinet protection should be at least in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0. Dimension D: Dimension C: Dimension E: Clearance for D.

A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit. A single fixture. The highest shelf: A fan mounted in the wall is the means here to exhaust cooking fumes to the outside. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink. Since the wall behind a sink often holds a window. Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided. Opt for the 15 in. Kitchenette 0-bedroom living unit. A range of 15 in. Total shelving in wall and base cabinets Shelving in either wall or base cabinets Drawer area Countertop area Item 60 ft2 Area and Over.

With the increased use of such electrical appliances. Your need for light is greatest over the work centers A good light there reduces the danger of cutting yourself. But if wall space is minimal. Kitchen 1. The use of large pans. Included in this category are brooms. No room count is allowable for this type facility. General storage requires space for linens. Choose incandescent. The best place to install fixtures for this purpose is beneath the wall cabinets with a shield to prevent glare when you're seated in the kitchen.

Kitchen activities become tiresome in poor light. Frameless are '. Four-drawer base cabinets are available in widths ranging from 12" to All base cabinets are 34Y2' tall. Most are available in widths ranging from 9" to Most are available in widths of Frameless base cabinets are also available in a three-drawer style in widths of 30" and 36'' L n e mo -. Framed wall cabinets are 12" deep not including doors.

Framed base cabinets are 24" deep. Access to plumbing and waste lines is the major consideration. Manufacturers' specifications should be carefully reviewed for rough opening requirements and any venting requirements. Ranges and Built-In Ovens Freestanding ranges and built-in ovens come in a variety of sizes and configurations. Refrigerators Refrigerator door swings and clearances are of critical importance. Dishwashers Built-in. The designer should check requirements with the manufacturer.

Interior Design and Space Planning

Some of the larger ranges consist of modular cooktops providing anywhere from two to seven heating elements as well as modular grills. While these drawings can be used for preliminary planning. Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only.

No other changes have been made to the kitchen. In Fig. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features for kitchens specified in the standards are shown in Figs. Since removable base cabinets and adjustable height counters are not now products that are readily available for purchase.

The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height. The standards ANSI 4. The wider work surface provides space for pots. Even if a self-cleaning oven is installed. See ANSI 4. When an oven with a drop-front door is used Fig. The standards specify that when the wall oven is not self-cleaning.

When not needed. The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven. When an oven with a side-opening door is used. Cooktops with smooth surfaces are preferred by people with limited hand and arm strength because they can slide pots of hot food on and off the cooktop rather than lifting them over raised burners and knobs.

Some wheelchair users cannot use conventional ranges because the surface is too high and there is no knee space for maneuvering. The controls must be placed along the front or the side of the range so that a seated person need not reach across a hot burner to adjust the controls Fig.

When a cooktop is installea in a lowered counter. People who pull up beneath the cooktop must exercise extreme care and cool hot foods before moving them. Cooktops in lowered counter segments with knee space below allow some wheelchair users to get close enough to operate the controls and move heavy pots and pans Fig. An additional 30 inches to the side is recom- mended Fig. While this type of installation may be the only way that some people can cook.

When the knee space is under a cooktop. It is possible. The height of the highest shelf above the floor should be limited to between 78 and 81 in. Seven volumes per foot of shelving can be used as a rule-of-thumb to project capacity.. Volumes per Linear Foot of Shelf Based on Subject Volumes per single face section 84 Limitations for shelving to serve children will differ and are indicated in Fig.

The size of books. These built-in bookshelves and bar unit were developed for a residence on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The front of the shelf is supported by the vertical members and the back of the shelf is nailed to the plywood back. In this design Hugh Newell Jacobsen. This simple trim piece acts as framing for sides. Sizes noted here are comfortable averages.

Not all games occupy floor areas indicated as necessary for those diagramed on this page. Dimensions of game equipment and floor areas required for its use are both subject to variation. But if interiors are planned to accommodate large units of equipment such as that required for table tennis. Recreational Activities. The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above. Note how the recessed fluorescent tube fixtures indirectly light up all the glasses and the 2" open slot in the bottom shelf indirectly lights up the liquor bottles on the back bar shelf.

Note also that the bar front is slightly padded with foam rubber and the entire bar top is finished with dark brown leatherette.

A tall storage cabinet for laundry supplies would complement each arrangement. Facilities for hanging drip-dry garments after washing should be provided. The space required will depend on the type of installation used.

It is desirable to plan space for specific laundry processes. Additional counter space can be provided by the tops of the dryer and washer. Moistureproof surfaces are needed for pretreating and sprinkling of clothes.

No allowance has been made between the back of equipment and the wall for electrical. In locating the washing equipment consideration should be given to convenience of inter-related household activities. Overall dimensions of areas will vary with type and size of equipment selected. Drying areas should be accessible for use under all climatic conditions. The space under the counters has been used for bins.

To control moisture in the room. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate arrangements of laundry equipment. Space needed by a single worker in front of equipment or between equipment placed opposite is indicated. Counter space is provided for sorting and folding three washer loads of clothes. Adequate storage for washing equipment and supplies should be located near the place of first use.

Time Saver Standards For Building Types

In this cabinet. The laundry area may be separate or combined with the bathroom. Disadvantages A bathroom will usually accommodate only washing and drying facilities. The tops of the laundry appliances provide useful horizontal space on which to lay clothes. Occupants may wish to use the bathroom when laundry is being washed or dried. This facili tates gathering soiled articles and putting away clean linen and clothing.

The bathroom sink may be used for hand washing. Other laundry related activities such as ironing. KEY I. Disadvantages Providing this extra room increases the cost of the dwelling. Floor and wall finishes in bathrooms are usually resistant to high humidities. Noise from laundry appliances can be shut off from the rest of the dwelling.

Laundry in Combination with Bathroom Advantages When the bathroom is located near the bedrooms. Clothes may be hung for air drying without interfering with other household activities. The most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages of these various options are listed below. Separate Laundry Advantages A separate space can be used for other activities such as sewing and hobbies. Temporary holding or storage of clothing to be washed or ironed is made easier.

Mechanical ventilation can be provided economically for both functions. Combining the laundry space with a half bathroom adjacent to the kitchen provides many of the advantages of a separate laundry room. The space above the appliances may be used as a linen closet. Kitchen sinks are usually sizeable and can be used for laundering. Disadvantages Noise generated by running appliances cannot be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling.

The appliances can be hidden from sight when they are not in use. Other laundry related activities. Additional plumbing costs are usually small. Grease and cooking smells can be passed on to clean clothes. Direct access to the outside for clothes drying is likely to be easier than from laundries located in a basement or on a second storey. Disadvantages Laundry must be carried up and down stairs. Danger of cross-contamination through the handling of dirty washing during food preparation.

An alcove adjacent to a corridor will accommodate only a minimum-sized laundry area. Noise generated by running appliances can be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Noise generated by running appliances cannot easily be shut off from the rest of the dwelling.

Convenience and time-and-step saving are easily achieved by placing the elements in their natural order of use: A minimum sewing area should include the machine.

Most houses need storage space for sewing materials and equipment. Light should be adequate for the activity. Consideration should be given to work surfaces at comfortable heights for the varying activities of sewing.

Mirror dimensions.

The work surface for layout and cutting may be outside the area for sewing machine operations and serve multiple purposes. An area especially planned for sewing. The amount and kind of storage required varies according to the quality and frequency of sewing. The clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy removal of the hanger.

The authors contend. Any shelf located at a greater distance should be used primarily for storage that requires only infrequent access. The location of the shelf just above the rod is essentially a function of rod height.

Figure 3 illustrates two various types of walk-in storage facilities. Wherever possible or practical. The height shown for the high shelf has been established based on fifth percentile male and female data in order to place it within reach of individuals of smaller body size.

The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the level of comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved. The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for donning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings.

Recommended heights of rods are 68" for long robes. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet.

Three types of closets are common. Reach-in closet The minimum front-to-back depth of space for hanging clothes is 24". The average rod space per garment is about 2" for women's clothing. Shelf Space and Lighting The shelf is normally located 2" above the rod. Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes.

Shelves higher than the rod may also be installed at the end of the closet. Walk-in closet This type provides rods on one or both sides of an access path at least 20" wide.

The accessible rod length is equal to the width of the door opening plus 6" on each side. Edge-in closet By providing an edge-in space of at least 18". Rod Lengths and Heights. This requires less wall space than a full front opening. A wider access space within the closet may be used as a dressing area. Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing.

This diagram shows dimensions for rods. Front View Double. Optional baskets and door racks. Bottled detergents and cleaning products can be stored neatly and safely in optional door racks. Optional door racks provide easy access to your most needed items. Optional door racks maximize storage area by utilizing all available space.

Wide storage area holds vacuum cleaner. Optional full-height door storage rack. Center pole gives extra support. Storage baskets pack brushes. Sliding baskets hold fruit. Plenty of shelving space for cloths. Stores toys and sports equipment in easy-access sliding baskets. Conveniently placed hanging rod for all your teenager's clothing. Front View Full-width. Extra wide shelf space for clothing. Double hanging convenience for shorter garments. Plus lots of room for her long dresses and coats.

The perfect his and hers closet. Doubles as storage area for dresses and coats. Extra lowhanging shelf makes it easy for kids to reach. Front View Walk-In. Single and double hang with upper storage and central shelving unit with additional clearance and shoe racks. Plenty of storage space for footballs.

Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom. Sliding basket system and shoe racks. Front View Standard Double. Full shelves with central storage unit allow easy storage of sweaters. Shoe rack keeps sneakers and other footwear neatly organized. Shoe racks on both sides. The perfect linen closet. Off-center storage for umbrellas and winter items. Front View Single hang with halflength shoe racks and upper storage.

Storage baskets slide out and hold dish cloths. Upper storage area for visitor's bags and small cases. M'14 16 and 20" widths available Top View Four extra-wide shelves for linen and blankets.

Singleand double hang with upper storage. Expands easily to accommodate future needs. Full-length clothes hanging space. Front View Single hang with upper storage and full-width shoe racks. Ideal for master bedroom. Sliding baskets for easy access to linen. Single hanging for clothes.

Four sliding baskets provide multiple storage capacity for shirts. Fulllength clothes storage for dresses.The location of the shelf just above the rod is essentially a function of rod height.

They did not consider their job at an end when they had designed the shell of a house. He did not originate a style ; he translated prevailing fashions into fine craftsmanship. Schodek, Daniel L. The Federal style is at its most suave and elegant in the furniture of Duncan Phyfe, a Scotch cabinetmaker who arrived in New York about The presentation of information in this edition of Time-Saver Standards is in two interrelated formats, first in Part I Architectural Fundamentals, which give the principles and cross-cutting discussion applicable to many topics and at many scales.

Stinnett, Julie Thompson, Paul W.

GIUSEPPE from Georgia
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